QOS on switches(Snoms plus Asterisk)

 

Assumptions:

  • tested on Catalyst 2960/3560 but on higher like 3750 also should work
  • VoIP phones - Snom 300,320 and 360 series
  • PBX - Asterisk
  • All traffic to/from PBX is tagged and prioritsed with dscp 46 and CoS 5

 

  •  1.Enable QoS globally

(config)#mls qos

 

 qos_s1.png

First we configure switches from 2 to 8.Switch 1 keep as a last

 

"INPUT" queue

  • 2.Trust DSCP  in packets on access ports

(config)#interface range fa0/1-48

(config-if-range)#mls qos trust dscp

qos_s2.png

If ports are "access" or "routed" set dscp because all frames are not taggedd.CoS value can be set only in tagged frames.

If port is "trunk" we can set either dscp or CoS

In our case phones tag traffic with dscp value 184(ef),PC are connected to second  port in phones.

 

  •  3.Set "trust: state on trunk

(config)#interface range gigabitEthernet 0/1-2

(config-if-range)#mls qos trust

qos_s3.png

if we do not type any parametr by default will be "dscp".Besides that we can trust also CoS or ip-precedence.

 

  • 4.Check maps dscp-cos and cos-dscp, which are automatically generated during enabling qos on switch.

 

qos_s4.png

 

from output we see CoS 5 is assigned to DSCP 40.We are sending voice with dscp 46 value(EF-101 110,TOS-184(10111000)) so we change CoS 5 assignment to dscp 46

(config)#mls qos map cos-dscp 0 8 16 24 32 46 48 56

 

qos_s5.png

check again qos maps cos-dscp

 

  • 5.Repeat steps on other switches besides switch 1
  • 6.Time to configure switch 1 where Asterisk is connected

(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/43

(config)#mls qos cos 5

Set CoS 5 value for all untagged frames on port where Asterisk is connected.

Another option is to trust dscp for all packets coming from Asterisk however we have to configure Asterisk to set dscp value in its packets(it is possible!)

(config)#interface range fa0/1-10

(config-cmap)#mls qos trust dscp

Trust all dscp values in LWAPP packets coming from Access-points.APs do not mark frames via CoS.(interfaces 0/1-10)

(config)#interface range fa0/44-48

(config-cmap)#mls qos trust cos

Trust CoS value on ports where Wireless Controller is connected,in my case Cisco 2612(Qos on WLC already set) - interfaces 0/44-48

  • 7.Check input-queue

(config)#show mls qos input-queue

qos_s6.png

CIsco 3560 uses SRR(shared round-robin) to control traffic from queue to switch

SRR dived bandwidth between queues based on weight.If one queue is empy,second can take their bandwidth

Catalyst 3560 has 2 input queues

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input priority-queue 2 bandwidth 20

qos_s7.png

Output above shows us we set queue 2 as a priority and add their 20% of interface bandwidth

(config)#show mls qos maps cos-input-q

qos_s8.png

Check mapping CoS value to queues,by default CoS 5 is added to second queue,the rest to first queue.

(config)#show mls qos maps dscp-input-q

qos_s9.png

Check map dscp-input-queue,by default dscp from 40 to 47 are sent to second queue, the rest to first queue.Do not change this settings.

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input buffers 80 20

qos_s10.png

We changed buffer settings for queues(80% for first and 20% for second).Bandwidth parametr keep as it is, it is abstract value and it is not real bandwidth but rather frequency how ofter switch takes data from queues.

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input threshold 1 50 80

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input cos-map threshold 1 0 1 2 3

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input cos-map threshold 2 4

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input cos-map threshold 3 5 6 7

qos_s11.png

qos_s12.png

We changed thresholds after crossing them frames with CoS are started to drop.

When threshold 1 is reached frames with CoS 0 1 2 3 switch starts to drop(queue 1)

When threshold 2 frames with CoS 4 switch starts to drop(frames with 0,1,2,3 all are dropping) - queue 1

Threshold for frames with CoS 6 and 7(queue 1) and frames with CoS 5(queue 2) is 100%
 

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input dscp-map threshold 1 0 8 16 24

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input dscp-map threshold 2 32

(config)#mls qos srr-queue input dscp-map threshold 3 46 48 54

qos_s13.png

We did similar with packets with dscp value set.

Output queue

  • 8. Chek output-queue settings

(config)#do show mls qos queue-set

qos_s14.png

Cisco 3560 has 4 output  queues on output interface.

We can set priority on output queue on condition it will be queue nr 1.

We can assign to interface either first queue set or second, we cannot assign 2 queue-sets to one interface.

Queues are working in accordance to SRR(shaped round-robin) or SRR(shared round-robin).

Clasification works in following way:

if dscp is set switch checks dscp-cos maps and choose CoS value,next based on CoS-to-queue map choose queue where to put this frame.

in other way it relies on CoS value and put frame to appropiate output-queue

In case of needs we change settings like below:

(config)#mls qos queue-set output 1 buffers 40 30 20 10

Command above changes buffer settings in queue-set 1. In my case I will use standard settings,that is 25 25 25 25

#show mls qos maps cos-output-q

qos_s15.png

Ouput above shows us default cos-output-queue map with assigned to them their threshold

#show mls qos maps dscp-output-q

qos_s16.png

Default dscp-output-queue map.In my opinion decison where to put frame is based on Cos (dscp-qos maps) but it has to be checked.Till now I did not do this.

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output cos-map threshold 1 0 1 2 3

Assign frames with CoS 0 1 2 and 3 to threshold 1

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output cos-map threshold 2 4

Assign frames with CoS 4 to threshold 2

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output cos-map threshold 3 5 6 7

 Assign frames with CoS 5,6 and 7 to threshold 3

qos_s17.png

CoS-output-queue after our changes

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map threshold 1 0 8 16 24

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map threshold 2 32

(config)#mls qos srr-queue output dscp-map threshold 3 46 48 56

qos_s18.png

Dscp-output-q after our changes

(config)#mls qos queue-set output 1 threshold 2 100 200 50 400

qos_s19.png

We set threshold for queue 2 in the following way:

Start to drop frames with CoS 0,1,2 and 3 after 100% of filled buffers

Start to drop frames with CoS 4 after 200% of filled buffers - at that time queue already started to share buffers.All frames with CoS 0,1,2,3 are dropped.

50% of buffers are reserved for that queue,50% are coming to shared pool.

Queue can borrow all buffers from all other queues(400% parametr).

In accordance to our CoS-output-q to second queue are put only frames with CoS 0 and 1 so this limit affect only these frames.

Warning!!!Settings above cause quite a lot loss of performance for normal trafic(,e.g. copying files,etc).

I set it due to specific network I administer however in most of networks default settings are sufficient,especially where voip traffic is not huge and without hit there is no any other important traffc which should has priority over normal traffic.

qos_s20.png

Output above shows us default settings like:

priority queue is disabled

First queue in queue-set 1 has limitation to 25% of interface bandwidth,the rest 3 has quaranty 25% of bandwidth and can share free bandwidth from the others.

Remember "bandwidth" is only ratio,not a physical value,e.g. srr-queue 1 1 1 1 is the same to 25 25 25 25 or 100 100 100 100

Value "0" means shapping is disabled,e.g.

shaped round robin(absolute) 25 0 0 0   - shapping for queues 2-4 is disabled

  •  enable priority queue

(config)#interface range fastEthernet 0/1-48

(config-if-range)#priority-queue out

Priority queue enable on all ports where voip phons are connected and on trunks.

 qos_s21.png

Settings after our changes

  •  9.Repeat procedure on switches 2-8
  • 10. Configure snom phonesto tag traffic with dscp value(ef) in vlan 5

 qos_s22.png

 

 

dzbanek 2012-10-22

 

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